For example, the presence of seeds at Nahal Oren in Israel ca. They were cultivated around BC. Although the Neolithic rebellion refers to a complex of several significant innovations, the two key evolutionary events to change human history were the domestication of animals and the cultivation of plants.
Some of the earliest domesticated animals included dogs East Asiaabout 15, years ago sheep, goats, cows, and pigs.
They might have realized that some crops are perennial in some regions, which gave them some security of food to fall back on when animals were in a short supply.
Several ethnological and archaeological studies conclude that the transition to cereal-based diets caused a reduction in life expectancy and stature, an increase in infant mortality and infectious diseases, the development of chronic, inflammatory or degenerative diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and multiple nutritional deficiencies, including vitamin deficiencies, iron deficiency anemia and mineral disorders affecting bones such as osteoporosis and rickets and teeth.
A new political class emerged, specialising in the skills of governance. By and large, sociologists and anthropologists concur as to the characteristics of agricultural society, and they use different names to explain the same thing.
Yet another group of specialists, soldiers, emerged, either to defend the property of the rich, or to attack others in order to achieve greater enrichment. These settlements, with a typical population of tomust not be seen as villages or protocities, since they were not occupied year-round and did not house the diversity of occupations and classes we associate with an urban economy.
With the understanding that global warming made the Neolithic Revolution possible, in the following I will shed some light on what the Neolithic Revolution was, in addition to uncovering some of the consequences that were brought about in this evolutionary period of time.
But there was also a built-in mechanism to offset this in agricultural society.
In the last few years we have had some small glimpses in our own nation of what can happen as a result of extreme weather with multiple hurricanes and the resulting floods that have hit Louisiana and the migrations of people, lack of food and water, order and the rioting that ensued from that.
Class systems arose, with the Council of Elders at the top, and farms, merchants and craftsmen at the bottom. Certainly, compared with the circumstances before the Neolithic revolution, cultural variation within society was likely to be greater and physical deviation as well, once there was the possibility for contact with other racial or ethnic groups.
Third, violence and war was a means of conquering territories and creating more powerful empires, city-states, etc. Of similar importance, humans also acquired methods of irrigation and food storage.
Bananas and plantainswhich were first domesticated in Southeast Asiamost likely Papua New Guineawere re-domesticated in Africa possibly as early as 5, years ago. Government The problems of these new, complex societies were many and varied: Some of the plants tried and then abandoned during the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East, at sites like Gilgal, were later successfully domesticated in other parts of the world.
They selected and cultivated certain grasses, such as oats, wheat and barley, which provided nourishment to larger groups of people. From the centers of these modernizations, knowledge diffused out over the face of earth to most people Robley Matthews, Douglas Anderson, Robert Chen, and Thompson Webb, The food surplus thus garnered supported a larger population—five or more times as large as from hunting and gathering—and permitted a small minority of them to specialize in other kinds of work, as craftsmen especially of the new, highly finished stone tools which gave the modern name to the periodartists, warriors, priests, and rulers, and to construct the first towns and cities.
On a larger scale, what happens when the global warming effects draughts, floods, hurricanes displace more people and force larger populations into smaller areas and there are not enough resources to meet the demands?
This gave rise to constructions, viz. However, it is necessary to examine the plethora of consequences that are attached to such a development and hope that they can serve as lessons for how to avoid such negative outcomes in the present and future.
University of Oklahoma Press, People began crafting tools that would aid them in farming, building homes, and protection; however, it did not stop there. Between and B. In this case it would nations fighting a virtual nuclear holocaust due to advanced weaponry for resources and power against one another.
Most hunter gatherers could not easily store food for long due to their migratory lifestyle, whereas those with a sedentary dwelling could store their surplus grain. Other Outcomes Additional direct effects of the Neolithic Revolution would include pet ownership cats, dogsselective breeding all farm animals, cereal crops, fruit, and vegetablesthe foods that we eat today e.
Stability in life opened new doors for man, as he ventured into domesticating animals rather than merely hunting them as per his need. This is what sociologists and anthropologists believe being a major way of life in human history, in sharp contrast to modern, industrialized, urban, and complex society.
Humanism also stressed the importance of focusing on the present, rather than the afterlife. If they were lucky and food was abundant, they were able to provide enough food for themselves and their children.
Once early farmers perfected their agricultural techniques like irrigation, their crops would yield surpluses that needed storage.
Ideas such as Humanism became widely popular during the Renaissance. The Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia is the centre of domestication for three cereals einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and barleyfour legumes lentil, pea, bitter vetch and chickpeaand flax.
In what is now the eastern United States, Native Americans domesticated sunflowersumpweed and goosefoot around BC. The period is described as a "revolution" to denote its importance, and the great significance and degree of change affecting the communities in which new agricultural practices were gradually adopted and refined.
The postulated Younger Dryas impact eventclaimed to be in part responsible for megafauna extinction and ending the last glacial periodcould have provided circumstances that required the evolution of agricultural societies for humanity to survive.
Domestication of animals When hunter-gathering began to be replaced by sedentary food production it became more profitable to keep animals close at hand. The strong pressure for conformity by means of informal sanctions based on confronting each other contact made psychological variation very difficult.
Trade Trade was always a feature of hunter-gatherer societies; however, with the development of farming it increased greatly in scope and scale.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. The Effects of the Neolithic Revolution The move from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary farming lifestyle did not take place overnight. Neither was it unique to the Middle East: Latin America and China experienced totally independent Neolithic Revolutions at later periods in time.
World History. fall midterm. STUDY. PLAY. Summarize the impact of the development of farming (Neolithic Revolution) on the creation of river valley civilizations. People started settling more because they could grow crops by a site. A rich supply of grain could support small towns. identify the major causes and effects of the renaissance.
Innovation An innovation is a change, a new method, or new idea. Innovations have positive and negative impacts. Related Topics Global I: Neolithic Revolution, Golden Ages Classical Civilizations, Abbasid Golden Age, Tang, Song, and Ming China, The Renaissance, Scientific Revolution.
The Neolithic Revolution was a big change in the history of humans. People learned to make fire, plants, and tame animals. And because of all of this, they were finally able to stay in one spot. The early humans learned a lot about how to use animals to their advantage.
They learned how to tame. The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.Download